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'Definite Evidence' Of Alien Life Within 20-30 Years, NASA Chief Scientist Says


Definite Evidence Of Alien Life Within 20 30 Years NASA Chief Scientist Says The Two Way NPR

Source: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2015...

There will be "strong indications" of alien life within a decade and "definite evidence" of it within 20 to 30 years, NASA's chief scientist has said.

"We know where to look. We know how to look," Ellen Stofan said during a panel discussion Tuesday on NASA's search for alien life and habitable worlds. "In most cases, we have the technology, and we're on a path to implementing it."

But she was quick to add: "We are not talking about little green men. We are talking about little microbes."

Her colleague John Grunsfeld, a former astronaut and associate administrator for the agency's Science Mission Directorate, agreed.

"I think we're one generation away in our solar system, whether it's on an icy moon or on Mars, and one generation [away] on a planet around a nearby star," Grunsfeld said at the same discussion.

Jeffery Newmark, NASA's interim director of heliophysics, added: "It's definitely not an if, it's a when."

Stashed in: The Universe, Awesome, NASA, SETI, Space the Final Frontier?, Life finds a way.

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Oh wow do we live in exciting times!

On Tuesday, April 7 NASA chief scientist Ellen Stofan had some exciting news:

"I think we're going to have strong indications of life beyond Earth within a decade, and I think we're going to have definitive evidence within 20 to 30 years," Stofan said. 

However, Stofan and the team of panelists were less sure about exactly where humankind will discover the first signs of alien life.

"I think we're one generation away in our solar system, whether it's on an icy moon or on Mars, and one generation [away] on a planet around a nearby star," said another panelist member and associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld.

Last month, Business Insider spoke with NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay about where he thought humankind would first find signs of alien life in our solar system. Surprisingly, the most likely place is not nearby or on any surface.

Where to begin: Underground

We need to start looking underground, according to McKay.

"Things are better below the surface," says McKay, who is a senior scientist with NASA's Planetary Systems Branch. She investigates where else life could exist in our solar system. 

Unfortunately, designing and dispatching a lander that can dig deep beneath a planet's surface is incredibly difficult and expensive. The only places scientists have drilled, collected, and examined samples beneath the surface is  on the moon and Mars.

One place where we wouldn't need to dig and drill is on Saturn's tiny moon, Enceladus. It harbors a massive ocean underneath a thick layer of ice on its surface. Two different teams of scientists found compelling evidence there that indicates active volcanoes line the tiny moon's seafloor.

McKay is excited about the prospect of Enceladus for another reason though. "Enceladus is most likely to give us an answer soonest," he said. "The reason is Enceladus has a plume coming into space."

In 2005, the Cassini spacecraft flew by Enceladus and spotted plumes of water vapor and other materials gushing out of its surface. If there's life in the solar system, the first place we're likely to find it is inside of those plumes, McKay said.

What to look for: Amino Acids

Sadly, Cassini is not equipped with the right instruments to detect signs of life in these plumes. And right now, NASA has no plans to dispatch another probe to Saturn or its moons anytime soon. That's not stopping McKay and others from discussing what they'd look for there if they had the chance.

"I'd suggest that the best molecules to measure are amino acids, the building blocks of proteins," McKay said during a live webcast hosted by The Kavli Foundation in January. "Life on Earth has made specific choices in amino acids. It uses a set of just 20 amino acids to build proteins, and those amino acids are all left-handed."

Left-handed amino acids are chemically identical (meaning they have all the same atoms in the same amounts) to right-handed animo acids. The difference is that they are structured in a way so they're mirror images of one another, just like how your right and left hands are the same shape but don't line up when you put one on top of the other.

One of the outstanding mysteries in astrobiology is why RNA and DNA is only constructed from proteins built by left-handed amino acids. Regardless of why or how, this fact will come in handy during potential future studies of Enceladus.

"If Chris were to find amino acids in the plumes of Enceladus, the challenge becomes determining whether they are the products of a biological process," Steven Benner, president of the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution in Florida, said during the webcast. "If he were to find that they're all the same hand, that would be convincing, because that's what makes the protein evolvable."

The real question: how different will aliens be from us?

Read more: http://businessinsider.com/where-were-most-likely-to-find-alien-life-in-the-space-2015-4

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